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Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men. The chances of recovery are
thanks to early detection (with prostate blood test PSA) spectacularly improved in recent decades.

Early stage prostate cancer does not cause any symptoms. In an advanced stage urinary complaints can arise such as more frequent urination, reduced radiation power, ... However, benign disorders of the prostate lay much more often at the basis of these complaints. Furthermore, blood can be in the urine
(hematuria) and erectile dysfunction can be present. Finally, pain complaints of the pelvic bone, spine,
hips and ribs occur at an advanced stage when metastasis to the bones is already present.

Prostate cancer is detected by the following tests:


  • Blood collection: Determination of the PSA value (prostate-specific antigen), a substance mainly produced by the prostate. In the blood of men with prostate cancer an increased PSA-level can be found.

  • Rectal exam: a gloved, well-smoothed finger is inserted through the sphincter muscle of the rectum. In this way, the prostate can be examined for the presence of hard lumps.

  • Transrectal ultrasound: by internal ultrasound through the anus and rectum, the prostate is visualized

  • MRI scan of the prostate.

  • Biopsies: a piece of tissue is removed from the tumor and sent for microscopic examination
    research and tested for the presence of cancer cells.


When faced with the diagnosis of prostate cancer, one is faced with the choice between a number of different treatments. If the prostate cancer has not spread yet, there are different treatments options:

1. Active surveillance

2. Robot-assisted removal of the prostate (radical prostatectomy)
3. Irradiation of the prostate: via external irradiation or the implantation of radioactive seeds
4. Watchful waiting: no curative therapy is started. If symptoms appear later, palliative hormone therapy can be started. Watchful waiting is an option for patients with a life expectancy <10 years.

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